COVID-19 interactome

BioID-based interactome of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome

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We profiled eight of twenty-nine proteins from the viral genome (twenty-one in progress). Select one below to view a detailed report or search for viral proteins that interact with a human protein.


Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, entirely dependent on host cell protein machinery for their replication. Characterizing how the virus that causes COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, usurps host cell machinery function, while simultaneously disrupting the cellular antiviral response, will both: (i) dramatically improve our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology and; (ii) identify useful drug targets. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome codes for at least twenty-nine proteins. Using a technique called BioID, we aim to characterize the virus-host protein-protein interactome in multiple human cell types.

Consider installing the browser extension GIX for retrieving human gene information anywhere on this website by double-clicking on its symbol or immediately next to the symbol on report tables.


The viral genome is a single-stranded RNA approximately twenty-nine kilobases in size. In has fifteen known open-reading frames that encode twenty-nine proteins. The reference sequence for the features below is MN908947.3.

Click an ORF to view details about it.



Start:266Length (BP):13203

Encodes a polyprotein containing eleven non-structural proteins (NSP 1-11). A ribosomal frameshift leads to an alternative transcript ORF1ab that contains the viral polymerase (NSP12) and helicase (NSP13), and three additional non-structural proteins (NSP14-16).


There are four structual viral proteins (E - envelope, M - membrane, N - nucleocapsid and S - spike) and 25 non-structural proteins. We are localizing these proteins in host cells using immunfluorescence and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichments of proximal proteins detected in BioID experiments. The current localizations listed here are from UniProt.

Hover over a protein to view its localization or over a compartment to view all viral proteins that localize there.